2009 Workshop & Sessions
You may select one of the three pre-conference workshops to attend.
3) Core DEC Training
The sessions are divided into four tracks identified by the following abbreviations to provide attendees with additional information about the sessions. You may select one session from any of the tracks during each time block to attend:
1) Medical and Environmental Response (MER)
2) Tribal and Community (TC)
3) Law, Justice and Collaboration (LJC)
4) Prevention, Intervention and Treatment (PIT)
Tuesday, September 22, 2009
1) Medical: Identifying Injuries Associated with Child Abuse
Presented by Mark J. Hudson, MD, Child Abuse Specialist, Children’s Hospital of Minnesota
Dr. Hudson will discuss suspicious fractures in children and will help in identifying abusive head trauma: when to be concerned and when not. Dr. Hudson will also provide information regarding abdominal trauma, including treatment. He will share his expertise in cutaneous injuries, including burns and child sexual abuse.
2) Tribal: Update on Methamphetamine Issues and Responses to Responses to the Methamphetamine Crisis in Indian Country
Presented by Diane Payne, Children's Justice Specialist, Tribal Law and Policy Institute
During this pre-conference workshop, the audience will be provided with an overview of child abuse issues related to methamphetamine use in Indian country. This 3-hour workshop will include information on recent trends and issues regarding methamphetamine use reported in Tribal communities, examples of Tribal-specific approaches to addressing the risks to Tribal children presented by methamphetamine users, and a discussion of safety issues for Tribal community-based service providers.
3) Core DEC Training: The Core DEC Training Program
Presented by Lori Moriarty, Senior Vice President of Education and Outreach, National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children (National DEC)
During this pre-conference workshop, the audience will learn about the Core DEC Training Program, a National DEC training tool designed to meet the needs of state alliances as they work to engage all of their local communities in DEC response practices. The intent of this training is to provide a basic understanding of DEC concepts and to explain the vital roles National DEC and state DEC alliances play in encouraging local communities to adopt consistent response practices. National DEC recognizes the need to provide national training to address the complex issues associated with forming a sustained DEC response.
Over the last year, the National DEC Training Advisory Group, State DEC Leaders and Working Group professionals from across the nation have been a critical part of developing this Core DEC Training Program. The group recommended that the initial component of National DEC training be focused on broad DEC concepts with an appeal to all service providers and community members at the federal, state, and local levels. They also suggested that the initial training engender a sense of urgency regarding the need to change practices and beliefs in order to effectively intervene and rescue drug endangered children. This 3-hour workshop will highlight components of the Core DEC Training Program to include: a brief history of DEC; history of drugs; examples of missed drug endangered children and the consequences; the roles and responsibilities of DEC at the national, state, and local levels; and available existing resources.
Tuesday, September 22, 2009
Plenary: Using Your Learning Style to Strengthen Team Communication
Presented by Janiece E. Siegerist, CEO, National Assessment and Developmental Services
The opening plenary session will provide a humorous and insightful view into how human behavior and learning styles impact team performance. The presentation will include a Learning Style Inventory, a description of the primary learning styles of team members and discussion of how these styles interact and impact team functioning. The session will provide an opportunity for attendees to understand their individual preferences in communication as well as an understanding of their team members preferred communication styles. Tips for improving and tailoring communication to team needs will be presented as well as strategies to address routine communication challenges.
A-01 Sticks and Stones: Identifying and Treating Non-accidental Trauma (MER)
Presented by Mark J. Hudson, MD, Child Abuse Specialist, Children’s Hospital of Minnesota
Dr. Hudson will assess non-accidental injuries to children including shaken baby syndrome. He will also review the risk factors in families that can lead to abuse.
A-02 Challenges to Implementing Multidisciplinary Teams in Indian County (TC)
Presented by Diane Payne, Children’s Justice Specialist, Tribal Law and Policy Institute
When navigating the Tribal, Federal, State and local jurisdictional maze, there are often barriers to developing functional multi-disciplinary responses to crimes against Native children. This session will explore ways Tribes and their collaborating agencies can work together, understanding their respective roles and honoring their strengths while responding in a child victim-center way without compromising their individual agency goals or Tribal sovereignty. We will discuss the basics of multi-disciplinary protocol development and review child victim-center procedures.
A-03 Harnessing the Energy of the Team (LJC)
Presented by Janiece E. Siegerist, CEO, National Assessment and Developmental Services
Basic information regarding the core functions and interactions of teams, including communication, problem solving, decision making and conflict resolution, will be provided. Trainees will be given an opportunity to apply core concepts and develop strategies for managing challenges posed by team work. This session will include discussion of models in effective communication, communication filters, conflict styles and basic strategies to resolve conflict and make team decisions that reflect the best efforts of all team members. Tips for achieving consensus and utilizing the gifts of each team member to improve overall team performance will be presented
A-04 The Role of Prevention in DEC Efforts (PIT)
Presented by Cristi Cain, Chair, Kansas Alliance for Drug Endangered Children and State Coordinator for the Kansas Methamphetamine Prevention Project; Kendra Dunn, DEC Alliance Services Director for the National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children; and Becky Swift, Certified Prevention Specialist and Assistant Director of Drug Demand Reduction, Iowa Office of Drug Control Policy
Substance abuse prevention and child abuse prevention initiatives provide individuals and communities with effective tools to assess needs, develop and implement strategies that address factors increasing the risk of child abuse and substance abuse, and to foster protective factors that diminish these risks. The strategies that all prevention professionals use are similar: public awareness, educational programming, identification of problems, referrals to helping resources, and public policy review. All are designed to increase knowledge of the issues and to effect change in the community. These presenters will cover the basics of prevention and highlight some prevention programs that could help to reduce the number of drug endangered children in your community.
Wednesday, September 23, 2009
Plenary: Why Don’t They Just Quit??
Presented by Nicolas Taylor, PhD, CAC III
Perhaps the greatest mystery in work with drug endangered children has less to do with the children themselves and more to do with the drug using parents. It would seem with all of the negative consequences occurring both to the children and even to the parents themselves that are directly attributable to drug use, the parent would admit, “Whoa. This isn’t good for me. I’m going to stop.” But often they don’t, to the amazement of every rational person observing their situation. It is easy to conclude that they must not love their children or that they must not love themselves. The process of addiction and the process of recovery, for that matter, are quite fascinating and not as simple as they may seem, with complex psychological processes often at work affecting behavior. This lively presentation will shed light on these processes and will help professionals working with drug using parents to have a more sophisticated understanding of addictive behavior and how to help facilitate change.
B-01 Serving Substance-exposed Newborns and Their Families (MER)
Presented by Barbara Drennen, RN, Executive Director and Co-Founder, Pediatric Interim Care Center; and Donna Ellis, MSW, Case Manager, Pediatric Interim Care Center
This presentation will share the wealth of experience gained through work at the Pediatric Interim Care Center (PICC), in Kent, Washington, the nation’s only specialized 24-hour center providing interim care for drug-exposed and medically fragile newborns. The following topics will be discussed during this session: descriptions and impacts of prenatal exposure to heroin, methadone, prescription drugs, cocaine, methamphetamine, and multiple drug combinations; PICC’s protocols for narcotic assisted withdrawal, therapeutic handling, and nutritional management of infants with feeding difficulties; the caregiver needs of drug-exposed infants and their impacts on home placement, foster care, daycare, and 24-hour care; and the challenges of designing and operating a program like PICC (immediate, short-term, 24-hour interim care).
B-02 Historical Trauma and its effects on a Ni mii puu Family - Finding Story, Healing Wounds (TC)
Presented by Roberta Lynn Tow-le-kit-we-son-my Paul , PhD, Director, Native American Health Sciences, Washington State University
Background: The need to heal wounds is profound and deep in the Native American Community. Beginning with the first European contact over five hundred years ago, Native Americans have experienced massive losses of lives, land, traditional ways, and languages. They were forced to assimilate and lost the freedom to practice their Native religion. These atrocious acts of inhumanity have been stumbling blocks in the healing journey of families and individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify the historical, unresolved grief over five generations of a Ni mii puu (Nez Perce) family and heal their wounds.
Methods: The research methodology used was Scholarly Personal Narrative (SPN). This methodology allows for the incorporation of oral Native American tradition such as family oral stories, interviews, and dreams, as well as, gleaning the story from historical documents, history books, family documents, family Genograms, archival records, and photographs.
Results: This methodology produced the story of five generations of historical trauma. Results revealed that healing could occur by placing historical pain within the context of bearing witness, affirming identify, empowerment through the memory of survival, and affirming family world view that we are living and being Ni mii puu. Our story is no longer silenced, but has been made public and acknowledged, enabling reconciliation, forgiveness, and a healing model for the family.
Conclusions: Sharing models of healing stories enriches all who choose to listen. As we share our stories across the world, we learn that we all have suffered, but we do have a choice to confront the atrocities and heal the wounds. We validate each other by listening; by listening, we gain empathy of the other; and with empathy, we can create the capacity to forgive with the hope that the cycle of inhumanity can stop.
B-03 Drug Court: Achieving Success for Families (LJC)
Presented by Meghan Wheeler, Project Director, National Drug Court Institute, National Association of Drug Court Professionals
The first drug courts, which focused primarily on the adult substance abuser, were developed in the late 1980s, while drug courts dealing with child abuse and neglect issues did not begin operating until the mid-1990s. Family dependency treatment courts (FDTCs) have evolved into a process by which the court, child welfare and treatment systems collaborate to effectively address child abuse and neglect cases where there is a determination of parental substance abuse or dependence. FDTCs protect the best interests of the child through the effective use of resources and commitment on the part of a multi-disciplinary team to assist parent(s) to address issues of substance abuse and dependence, to provide a safe and nurturing environment for a child and ensure timely and developmentally appropriate services are provided to the child. This session will provide background on the drug court model applied to child protection cases and how partnerships between these local courts and DEC efforts can improve outcomes for both parent and child within their family struggling with addiction.
B-04 Adverse Childhood Experience (ACEs) Study and DEC (PIT)
Presented by Carol Redding, MA and Fellow, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Attendees will learn about the findings of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. The presenter, who is also a survivor of extensive child abuse, will illustrate the study’s findings which demonstrate the relationship between trauma during childhood and long-term negative health and social consequences. In addition, she will share intimate examples of this cause-and-effect relationship, drawn from her own childhood and adult experiences, touching upon tools that build resilience in the traumatized child and adult.
Luncheon and Keynote Speaker
Washington State Attorney General Rob McKenna
Washington State Attorney General Rob McKenna will present an update on methamphetamine abuse in the state of Washington. He will also discuss how and why the Attorney General’s Office is now shifting its focus from methamphetamine to prescription drug abuse, and the important role of partnerships in working to protect children affected by all types of drug abuse.
C-01 The Impact of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drug Prenatal Exposure (MER)
Presented by Maureen Shogan, MN, RNC; Neonatal Clinical Nurse Specialist – NICU, Deaconess Neonatal/Perinatal Education Center
This presentation will focus on the impacts on both Mom and Baby of drug use in pregnancy. The audience will learn about maternal transfer of methamphetamines and narcotics to the fetus during drug use in pregnancy, fetal effects of maternal drug use, neonatal outcomes, assessment of high risk newborns, interpreting newborn toxicology screens and initial newborn care controversies and challenges.
C-02 Tribal DEC Training to Increase Engagement with Tribal Nations (TC)
Richard Rosky, Regional Coordinator, HIDTA National Meth and Pharmaceutical Initiative; Richard Clore, Salt River Indian Police Department; Andrea LeStarge, Federal DEC/Meth Initiative Program Coordinator, US Attorney's Office - Western District of Wisconsin; and Cindy Giese, Special Agent in Charge, Superior/Wausau Offices, Statewide DEC Coordinator, Wisconsin Department of Justice Division of Criminal Investigation
Two state DEC alliances, Wisconsin and Arizona, have been providing training and technical assistance to Tribal Nations within their state to identify and support tribal children who are endangered as a result of their parents’ substance use. They will explain their process and share materials they have used including important lessons they have learned along the way.
C-03 Prescription Drug Abuse and Community Responses (LJC)
Presented by Steven Freng, PsyD, MSW, Prevention/Treatment Manager, Northwest High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA); and members of the grassroots educational organization Prescriptions for Life (Rx4Life), including Gabriel Cruden, Renee Jungblom, Jim Tilla and Sherry Tilla
Participants in this session will learn about the types of prescription medications abused by youth and adults for non-medical purposes, including opiates, stimulants and sedatives; they well learn the actions and effects of specific medications within each type; and they will learn about recent trends in prescription medication abuse at national, regional and local levels. In addition, participants will learn about the effects of pre-natal exposure to prescription medications on newborns and on childhood development, and will learn about several approaches for the prevention of prescription medication abuse.
Rx4Life members will present their community’s response to prescription drug abuse: How prescription pain medication addiction takes away everything you love: One family’s story and how it has changed an entire community. They will offer a window into why they started their group and how they formed into a nonprofit organization committed to the elimination of pain medication abuse in their community and to providing prescription pain medication monitoring and treatment options.
C-04 Circle of Security: Attachment Issues in Children Affected by Drugs (PIT)
Presented by Glen Cooper, BA, MA, Counseling Psychology; Marriage and Family Therapist; Mental Health Counselor and Child Mental Health Specialist; and Janet Mann, BA, Founder of The Children’s Ark
This presentation will provide a brief summary of children’s attachment needs and the role drug use plays in creating disorganized caregiver/child attachments. The presenters will examine how the response from the legal system, child welfare system, and foster care system can exacerbate or mitigate attachment related problems for children. Examples will be drawn from their experiences at The Children’s Ark, an innovative evaluation and intervention center that over that last 13 years has served CPS involved infants, toddlers and their families.
D-01 Medical Testimony on Abuse and Neglect (MER)
Presented by Lisa Lydon, JD; Teresa Forshag, ARNP; and Michelle Messer, MD
Attendees will gain the expertise necessary to present medical findings regarding child abuse and neglect in the courtroom setting and to become familiar with legal language.
D-02 Healing Lodge of the Seven Nations: Residential Treatment for Addicted Youth (TC)
Presented by Martina Whelshula, PhD, member of the Arrow Lakes Nation of the Colville Reservation and Administrative Director of Healing Lodge of the Seven Nations
Many Native American youth 13-17 years old struggle with alcoholism and drug abuse. Tribe officials, social workers, parents and juvenile programs are faced with limited services to combat this rapidly increasing problem. Many of these youth are involved in the high rate of auto accidents and deaths on reservations due to alcohol and substance abuse and may be one step away from incarceration or a lifetime of poverty. Those who are introduced to the juvenile court system or other social services programs dealing with problems are referred out for treatment to Youth Regional Treatment Centers throughout the country. One such organization is the Healing Lodge of the Seven Nations located in Spokane, Washington and established in 1986. Through a unique culturally-based approach to treatment, Native American adolescents experiencing substance abuse are allowed the opportunity at the Healing Lodge to escape the cycle of addiction.
D-03 Emerging Approaches to DEC at the State and Local Level (LJC)
Presented by Justin Mazzeo, Martha Decker, Jade Thomas, Tim Griffin and Marjean Searcy
Hear about how Colorado, Utah and Texas projects are looking at new DEC issues, partners, and strategies:
The Colorado Alliance for Drug Endangered Children is working with Community Parole Officers to identify drug endangered children who are in the homes of or being parented by the most dangerous and high level offenders just as they are released from prison and throughout their transition into the community. Community Parole Officers will receive comprehensive training on the importance of recognizing and responding collaboratively to the needs of children in dangerous substance abusing environments. The Community Parole Officers will enter information into the CWISE Database, which electronically houses all of the information for the Division concerning the children living with the offender, as well as his/her children living elsewhere. In the case of a positive drug test, a search with drugs or paraphernalia found, or an arrest for a drug related offense, the case will be converted to an active DEC case and the officer will follow the appropriate protocols to provide the necessary services and support to these children. The Community Parole Officers will coordinate with all appropriate agencies to ensure a safe and healthy future for drug endangered children.
Utah has created a public and private multi-disciplinary team to lead the new Utah Pharmaceutical Drug Crime Program (UPDCP). The goal of the UPDCP is to reduce the abuse of prescription drugs by accomplishing the following objectives: reduce availability for abuse, increase the perception of risk to include the physical and psychological harmful effects as well as legal sanctions, and change the public’s attitude toward being less tolerant of the non-medical use of pharmaceutical drugs. The Utah Alliance for Drug Endangered Children has been involved in this effort since its inception and will share details of the plan that Utah has drafted.
The Texas Alliance for Drug Endangered Children has been working with the Dallas DEC Alliance, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services and the Dallas Police Department to develop a pilot program to better help the children in Dallas County exposed to volatile drug environments. The program focuses primarily on building trust between law enforcement and Child Protective Services and eliminating impediments to a quick and efficient response when the situation arise.
D-04 Healing the Hidden Victims: Building Resiliency in Children and Families of the Incarcerated (PIT)
Presented by Joenne Harrhy, BA; Family Services Unit Manager, Washington State Department of Corrections
A 2006 survey conducted by Kathleen Russell, Ph.D. of Pacific Lutheran University estimated that there are 27,000 children in the State of Washington that are impacted by prison incarceration. This doesn’t include potentially 68,000 children whose parents are under supervision by the State, or those under supervision by county, federal or tribal agencies. National studies indicate that children who have an incarcerated parent are significantly more likely than their peers to end up involved in the criminal justice system.
This interactive session will increase your awareness of the impact that incarceration has on children and families, and will provide information about support programs, interventions, and services available to this population. Participants will learn about recent legislation that has begun to raise awareness and support for these remarkable and resilient children; explore issues specifically related to incarcerated mothers and fathers; and learn how mitigate the impacts of incarceration on children and families. In addition, two individuals who have directly experienced the impacts of incarceration will share their stories. The audience will learn how successful partnerships between the Department of Corrections and communities have provided increased support for children and families, as well as allowed incarcerated parents to become more involved and supportive of their child’s development, education, and academic success.
Thursday, September 24
E-01 The Devastating Effect of Neglect on Children: A Medical Perspective (MER)
Presented by Teresa Forshag, ARNP
Neglect is often poorly defined and difficult to communicate to professionals in the criminal justice system. This session will educate participants on how to recognize the signs and symptoms of child neglect. The devastating effect of neglect on growth, development and emotional health of child victims will be addressed, including documenting and the reporting of findings to social services with established protocol for intervention.
E-02 One Urban Indian Community's Response to Children in Need (TC)
Presented by Toni Lodge, Executive Director, NATIVE Project/NATIVE Health Clinic of Spokane and Vinetta MacPherson, ARNP, Medical Director, NATIVE Health Clinic of Spokane
This session will provide attendees with an overview of the response to children in need that has been implemented by an urban Indian Community. The presentation will include an outline of these topics:
1. The current statistical information on American Indian women and prenatal use and exposure to alcohol, drugs and tobacco based on a study completed by the State of Washington Department of Health, Maternal and Child Department;
2. NATIVE Health's data and anecdotal experience in working with Indian families and children, including the experiences of both presenters as LICWAC/CPT members;
3. Cultural reasons for interrupted healthy Indian families and children and the reluctance to seek services;
4. How learned oppression, depression and the current recession keep our children and families at risk; and
5. Some practical ways Indian communities can intervene and be good relatives to our children and families in need.
E-03 Resolving Interdisciplinary Differences (LJC)
Nicolas Taylor, PhD, CAC III; Mitch Brown, retired police chief and author; Betsy Dunn, Chairman for Tennessee DEC, Co-Chair, National DEC's Initial Response, Assessment and Decision Making Working Group for the National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children and CPS Investigator
Effective community help for drug endangered children inherently involves people from many different agencies and backgrounds working together. While it is exciting and often ground-breaking to do this kind of collaborative, differences in perspectives and philosophies can make the work difficult. This forum features representatives from law enforcement, treatment of parents, child welfare and treatment of drug endangered children. Participants will be given the opportunity to see this very diverse group of professionals participate in open "fish bowl" type discussion of issues relevant to work with drug endangered children. The goal will be to model how diverse perspectives can express divergent views and then how to work together to come to a working understanding of key principles to be used to guide the collaborative work. Difficult topics to be discussed openly and honestly include:
1. Should drug-using parents be allowed to keep their children while they are in early stages of recovery?
2. What level of accountability should be acceptable for drug-using parents in treatment?
3. Should treatment providers withhold information that suggests a drug-using parent could harm his or her children from community treatment teams?
4. Should drug-using parents be required to pass a drug test before they are allowed to see their children?
E-04 Treating Methamphetamine Addiction (PIT)
Presented by John M. Roll, PhD, Professor and Associate Dean for Research and Director, Program of Excellence in the Addictions, Washington State University College of Nursing
This presentation will provide cutting-edge data on methamphetamine addiction and its treatment. Emphasis will placed on describing recent positive outcomes for three clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of contingency management as a treatment approach to methamphetamine addiction.
F-01 Use of Urine Analyses in Identifying and Treating Substance Abuse (MER)
Presented by Kent G. Johnson, MS/FT, NRCC/TC, Forensic Toxicologist/Scientific and Lab Director
Learn from a Forensic Toxicologist about the use of urine analyses in identifying and treating substance abuse. Topics of discussion will include drug testing in general, the development of new testing techniques, how drug testing can aid in drafting and implementing protocols and guidelines used in drug endangered children situations and the assistance the presenter provided in setting up the DEC program in Portland, Oregon.
F-02 Northwest Tribal Community Healing (TC)
Presented by Deby Stanger, Prevention Specialist, Community Health and Wellness, Spokane Tribe of Indians and Marvin Garcia, Klamath Tribes
The audience will gain tools that they can take with them to use in their own communities. The programs and projects that are being used in Northwest Tribal Communities for relapse prevention will explain the impacts of abuse and why it is affecting the whole community. One of the programs that is being used is the White Bison Teachings. This program addresses the impact a community can have if they are willing to work hard on the forgiveness factor. The main issues are addressed and the stories are told, then the healing begins. The White Bison teachings work, if the facilitator is willing to tell their own story of struggle and success, and tell it with honesty and be open, without blame. The significance of this work has been, to help others regain hope and empowering them to achieve their goals and dreams, through hard work of healing the whole person.
In addition, this session will address the comprehensive continuum of services that the Klamath Tribes have used to address the overwhelming problem of methamphetamine and other substance abuse among their tribal families. The project’s main target is to improve the permanency outcomes of tribal youth, or, in other words, provide positive alternatives and guidance to youth for stability and positive choices in life. The project, which includes an emphasis on cultural services, is based on a collaborative and coordinated partnership with other tribal and non-tribal service providers. Services are provided to youth, adults and families, and the project is expanding to include outreach and prevention efforts within the elementary schools.
F-03 Training, Technical Assistance and Resources from Three National Centers (LJC)
Presented by Susannah Carroll, MA, Training and Resource Center Director, National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children; Cathleen Otero, Deputy Director, National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare; and Chris Fruitrich, Web Developer, National Methamphetamine Training and Technical Assistance Center
The National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children (National DEC), National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare (NCSACW) and the National Methamphetamine Training and Technical Assistance Center (National Meth Center) will present information on training and technical assistance resources available to professionals in the field. This presentation will focus on the scope of the issue of children living with substance misuse and the varying perspectives professionals take to answer the question: How do we work together to change systems to improve the lives of children and families? Each presenter will share tools, training and resources targeted toward working with this critical population.
F-04 Implications of Gang-related Crimes and DEC (PIT)
Presented by Brad Richmond, Spokane County Sheriff’s Office Detective; Mike Roberge, Spokane Police Department Senior Patrol Officer; and Kitara McClure, Executive Director of PONY TALES, Youth Services Alternative
This session will include an introduction to the changing face of gangs in today’s society and how gangs impact children and families involved in the drug culture. The attendees will learn why traditional methods of law enforcement and treatment are not effective in these situations. In addition, a former female gang member, who has started a non profit organization aimed at providing mentors, tutors and alternative activities to ensure success in education, will describe her life within a gang and her efforts at keeping youth off the streets.
Intent and Impact: A Survivors Story of “Accidental” Interventions
Presented by Denise Brazzell
Denise Brazzell is a survivor. Her story is one of heartbreak and triumph that will not only encourage you in your work with drug endangered children, but will help you to realize the difference you really can make. She tells a story of interventions in her life that were accidental but made a lasting impact. These “accidental” interventions helped her choose a path toward success. The lessons learned from her story teach us that with just the smallest of efforts, we can make a huge difference in the lives of the families with whom we work. Once that insight is realized, we then see what a difference we can make when we are intentional in our efforts. Come, and be encouraged, moved and strengthened in your work with drug endangered children. You will laugh, you may cry, but either way, you will know that you can have an intentional impact on children who have no choices.